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您現在位置(zhi):堅寶電纜(lan)選用優(you)質銅材料生產(chan),怎樣的才是好銅?
發布時間:2023.12.07 新聞來源:廣東堅寶電纜有限公司 瀏覽次數:

導讀:因為出(chu)(chu)產(chan)(chan)銅桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)的(de)兩者的(de)工藝(yi)不(bu)同,所出(chu)(chu)產(chan)(chan)的(de)銅桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)中的(de)含(han)氧(yang)(yang)量(liang)及外觀就不(bu)同。上引(yin)出(chu)(chu)產(chan)(chan)的(de)銅桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan),工藝(yi)妥當氧(yang)(yang)含(han)量(liang)在10ppm以(yi)下(xia),叫無氧(yang)(yang)銅桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan);連鑄(zhu)(zhu)連鑄(zhu)(zhu)出(chu)(chu)產(chan)(chan)的(de)銅桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan) 是在維護(hu)條件下(xia)的(de)熱軋,氧(yang)(yang)含(han)量(liang)在200-500ppm范圍內,但有時也(ye)(ye)高達700ppm以(yi)上,一(yi)般狀況下(xia),此種辦法出(chu)(chu)產(chan)(chan)的(de)銅表面亮光(guang),低氧(yang)(yang)銅桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan),有時也(ye)(ye)叫光(guang)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)。

無氧銅桿

銅桿是電纜職業的首要質料,出產的辦法首要有兩種——連鑄連軋法和上引連鑄法。連鑄連軋低氧銅桿的出產辦法較多,其特色是金屬在豎爐中消融后,銅液經過保溫爐、溜槽、中心包,從澆管進入關閉的模腔內,選用較大的冷卻強度進行冷卻,構成鑄坯,然后進行多道次軋制,出產的低氧銅桿為熱加工安排,本來的鑄造安排現已破碎,含氧量一般為200~400ppm之間。無氧銅桿國內底子悉數選用上引連鑄法出產,金屬在感應電爐中消融后經過石墨模進行上引接連鑄造,之后進行冷軋或冷加工,出產的無氧銅桿為鑄造安排,含氧量一般在20ppm以下。請關注堅寶電纜,因為制作工藝的不同,所以在安排結構、氧含(han)量散布(bu)、雜質的辦法及(ji)散布(bu)等諸多(duo)方面有較大不同。

一、拉制功能

銅桿的拉(la)制功(gong)能跟(gen)許多(duo)要素有關,如雜(za)質的含量、氧含量及散布、工藝(yi)操控等。下面分別從以上幾(ji)個方(fang)面對銅桿的拉(la)制功(gong)能進行剖(pou)析。

1.熔化辦法對S等(deng)雜質的影響

連(lian)(lian)鑄連(lian)(lian)軋出產(chan)銅(tong)桿(gan)首要是經(jing)過氣體的(de)焚(fen)燒使銅(tong)桿(gan)熔化(hua),在(zai)焚(fen)燒的(de)進(jin)程中(zhong),經(jing)過氧化(hua)和蒸發(fa)效果,可必定(ding)程度(du)削減部分雜質(zhi)(zhi)進(jin)入銅(tong)液,因(yin)此連(lian)(lian)鑄連(lian)(lian)軋法(fa)對質(zhi)(zhi)料要求相對低一些。上引連(lian)(lian)鑄出產(chan)無氧銅(tong)桿(gan),因(yin)為(wei)是用(yong)感應電爐(lu)熔化(hua),電解銅(tong)表面(mian)的(de)“銅(tong)綠”“銅(tong)豆”底子(zi)都熔入到銅(tong)液中(zhong)。其間熔入的(de)S對無氧銅(tong)桿(gan)塑性影響(xiang)極大,會添加拉絲斷線(xian)率(lv)。

2.鑄造進程(cheng)中雜質的進入

在出產(chan)進程中(zhong)(zhong),連(lian)鑄(zhu)連(lian)軋(ya)工藝需(xu)經(jing)過保溫(wen)爐、溜槽、中(zhong)(zhong)心包轉運銅(tong)(tong)液,相對(dui)簡略構成耐火資(zi)料的(de)(de)(de)掉落(luo),在軋(ya)制進程中(zhong)(zhong)需(xu)求(qiu)經(jing)過軋(ya)輥,構成鐵質的(de)(de)(de)掉落(luo),會給銅(tong)(tong)桿構成外(wai)部攙雜。而熱軋(ya)中(zhong)(zhong)皮上(shang)和皮下氧化物的(de)(de)(de)軋(ya)入(ru),會給低氧桿的(de)(de)(de)拉絲構成晦氣(qi)的(de)(de)(de)影響。上(shang)引連(lian)鑄(zhu)法(fa)出產(chan)工藝流(liu)程較短,銅(tong)(tong)液是(shi)經(jing)過聯(lian)體爐內潛流(liu)式完結,對(dui)耐火資(zi)料的(de)(de)(de)沖擊不大,結晶(jing)是(shi)經(jing)過石(shi)墨模內進行(xing),所以進程中(zhong)(zhong)或許(xu)發生的(de)(de)(de)污染源較少(shao),雜質進入(ru)的(de)(de)(de)時(shi)機(ji)較少(shao)。

O、S、P是與銅(tong)(tong)會(hui)出(chu)產化(hua)合(he)物的(de)元素。在熔態銅(tong)(tong)中,氧能夠(gou)溶解一(yi)部分,但(dan)當銅(tong)(tong)冷凝時,氧簡直不(bu)溶解于(yu)銅(tong)(tong)中。熔態時所溶解的(de)氧,以銅(tong)(tong)=氧化(hua)亞銅(tong)(tong)共(gong)晶(jing)體(ti)分出(chu),散布在晶(jing)粒晶(jing)界處。銅(tong)(tong)-氧化(hua)亞銅(tong)(tong)共(gong)晶(jing)體(ti)的(de)呈現(xian),顯(xian)著(zhu)下降了銅(tong)(tong)的(de)塑(su)性。

硫能夠溶解(jie)在(zai)熔體的銅(tong)中,但(dan)在(zai)室溫下(xia),其溶解(jie)度簡直(zhi)下(xia)降(jiang)到零(ling),它以硫化亞銅(tong)的辦法呈現(xian)在(zai)晶粒晶界(jie)處,會顯著下(xia)降(jiang)銅(tong)的塑(su)性。

3.氧在低(di)氧銅桿和(he)無氧銅桿中散布辦法及其影響

氧含量(liang)對低氧銅桿的(de)(de)拉(la)線功能有(you)著顯著的(de)(de)影(ying)響。當氧含量(liang)添(tian)加到(dao)最(zui)(zui)(zui)佳值時,銅桿的(de)(de)斷線率最(zui)(zui)(zui)低。這是因為氧在與大部分雜(za)質反響的(de)(de)進程中(zhong)都起到(dao)了清除器的(de)(de)效果。適度的(de)(de)氧還有(you)利(li)于(yu)去(qu)除銅液中(zhong)的(de)(de)氫(qing),生(sheng)成水蒸氣溢出,削(xue)減氣孔的(de)(de)構(gou)成。最(zui)(zui)(zui)佳的(de)(de)氧含量(liang)為拉(la)線工藝供給了最(zui)(zui)(zui)好的(de)(de)條件(jian)。

低(di)氧(yang)銅桿氧(yang)化(hua)物的(de)(de)散(san)布:在接連澆鑄中凝結的(de)(de)開(kai)始(shi)階段,散(san)熱速率和(he)均(jun)(jun)勻冷(leng)卻(que)是決議銅桿氧(yang)化(hua)物散(san)布的(de)(de)首(shou)要要素。不均(jun)(jun)勻冷(leng)卻(que)會(hui)引起銅桿內部結構(gou)(gou)本質上的(de)(de)差異,但后續的(de)(de)熱加工(gong),柱狀晶一般會(hui)遭(zao)到損壞,使氧(yang)化(hua)亞(ya)銅顆粒(li)(li)纖細(xi)化(hua)和(he)均(jun)(jun)勻散(san)布。氧(yang)化(hua)物顆粒(li)(li)集合而發生的(de)(de)典型(xing)狀況是中心爆裂(lie)。除氧(yang)化(hua)物顆粒(li)(li)散(san)布的(de)(de)影響外,具有較小氧(yang)化(hua)物顆粒(li)(li)的(de)(de)銅桿顯(xian)示出較好的(de)(de)拉(la)線(xian)特性,較大的(de)(de)Cu2O顆粒(li)(li)簡略構(gou)(gou)成(cheng)應力集中點而開(kai)裂(lie)。

無(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)含(han)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)量超支,銅(tong)(tong)(tong)桿(gan)變脆,延伸率(lv)下降,拉(la)伸款式(shi)端(duan)口顯暗紅色,結晶安排疏松。當氧(yang)(yang)(yang)含(han)量超出8ppm時,工藝功能(neng)變差,表現為(wei)鑄造及拉(la)伸進程中(zhong)止桿(gan)及斷線率(lv)極具增高(gao)。這是因為(wei)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)能(neng)與銅(tong)(tong)(tong)生成氧(yang)(yang)(yang)化(hua)亞銅(tong)(tong)(tong)脆性相,構(gou)成銅(tong)(tong)(tong)-氧(yang)(yang)(yang)化(hua)亞銅(tong)(tong)(tong)共晶體(ti),以網狀安排散布在境地上。這種脆性相硬度高(gao),在冷變形時將會與銅(tong)(tong)(tong)機(ji)體(ti)脫離,導(dao)(dao)致銅(tong)(tong)(tong)桿(gan)的機(ji)械功能(neng)下降,在后(hou)續加工中(zhong)簡略構(gou)成開裂現象。氧(yang)(yang)(yang)含(han)量高(gao)還能(neng)導(dao)(dao)致無(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)桿(gan)導(dao)(dao)電率(lv)下降。因此,有必要嚴格(ge)操控上引連鑄工藝及產品質量。

4.氫的影響

在上引(yin)連鑄中,氧(yang)含(han)量操控較低,氧(yang)化物的(de)副效果唄**下(xia)降,但(dan)氫的(de)影響成為較顯著的(de)問題。吸(xi)氣(qi)后熔體中存(cun)在平衡反響:H2O(g)=[O]+2[H];

氣(qi)體(ti)及疏(shu)松是(shi)(shi)在(zai)(zai)(zai)結(jie)晶(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)進(jin)程(cheng)中(zhong),氫從過飽和的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)溶液中(zhong)分出(chu)(chu)并集(ji)合而構(gou)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。在(zai)(zai)(zai)結(jie)晶(jing)前(qian)分出(chu)(chu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)氫又可恢復(fu)氧化亞(ya)銅而生成(cheng)水氣(qi)泡(pao)。因(yin)為上(shang)(shang)(shang)引鑄造的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特色是(shi)(shi)銅液自(zi)上(shang)(shang)(shang)而下的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)結(jie)晶(jing),構(gou)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)液**形狀近似錐型(xing)。銅液結(jie)晶(jing)前(qian)分出(chu)(chu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)氣(qi)體(ti)在(zai)(zai)(zai)上(shang)(shang)(shang)浮進(jin)程(cheng)中(zhong)被堵在(zai)(zai)(zai)凝結(jie)安排內(nei),結(jie)晶(jing)時(shi)在(zai)(zai)(zai)鑄桿內(nei)構(gou)成(cheng)氣(qi)孔(kong)。上(shang)(shang)(shang)引的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)含氣(qi)量少時(shi),分出(chu)(chu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)氫存(cun)在(zai)(zai)(zai)于晶(jing)界處,構(gou)成(cheng)疏(shu)松;含氣(qi)量多時(shi),則集(ji)組成(cheng)氣(qi)孔(kong),因(yin)此,氣(qi)孔(kong)和疏(shu)松是(shi)(shi)氫氣(qi)和水蒸氣(qi)兩者構(gou)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。

氫來(lai)源(yuan)于上引出產進(jin)程中的(de)各個(ge)工藝環(huan)節,如質(zhi)料電解(jie)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)“銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)綠”、輔料木炭**、氣候環(huan)境**、石墨結晶器未枯燥(zao)等(deng)。因此,熔化爐(lu)中的(de)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)液表面應(ying)掩蓋經烘烤的(de)木炭,電解(jie)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)應(ying)盡量去除“銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)綠”、“銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)豆”“耳朵”,對進(jin)步無氧銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)桿質(zhi)量十分重要。

在(zai)連鑄連軋工藝(yi)中,往(wang)往(wang)選用適度操控氧含量來操控氫。Cu2O+ H2= 2Cu+ H2O

因(yin)(yin)為銅(tong)(tong)液(ye)在(zai)鑄造進程中是自下而(er)上(shang)結晶,銅(tong)(tong)液(ye)中的(de)(de)氧和氫(qing)所發(fa)生的(de)(de)水蒸氣很(hen)簡略上(shang)浮跑出,銅(tong)(tong)液(ye)中的(de)(de)氫(qing)大部分(fen)能被有用去除,因(yin)(yin)此對銅(tong)(tong)桿的(de)(de)影響(xiang)較小(xiao)。

二、表面質量

在(zai)出產電磁線等(deng)產品的(de)(de)進(jin)程中,對銅(tong)桿(gan)的(de)(de)表面(mian)質(zhi)量也需提出要求。需求拉制后的(de)(de)銅(tong)絲表面(mian)無毛刺、銅(tong)粉(fen)少、無油污。并經(jing)過改變實驗丈量表面(mian)銅(tong)粉(fen)的(de)(de)質(zhi)量和改變后調查銅(tong)桿(gan)的(de)(de)恢(hui)復狀況來斷(duan)定(ding)其好壞(huai)。

在(zai)連鑄連軋進程中,從鑄造到軋制前,溫度高,徹底露(lu)出(chu)于(yu)(yu)空氣中,使鑄坯(pi)表(biao)面(mian)構(gou)成較厚的氧(yang)化層,在(zai)軋制進程中,跟著軋輥的滾動(dong),氧(yang)化物顆粒軋入銅線表(biao)面(mian)。因(yin)為氧(yang)化亞(ya)銅是(shi)高熔點脆性化合物,關于(yu)(yu)軋入較深的氧(yang)化亞(ya)銅,當成條狀的集合物遇模具拉伸時,就會(hui)是(shi)銅桿外(wai)表(biao)面(mian)發生毛刺,給后續(xu)的涂漆構(gou)成費事(shi)。

而(er)上引連鑄(zhu)(zhu)工藝制(zhi)作的(de)無(wu)(wu)氧(yang)銅桿,因為鑄(zhu)(zhu)造和冷卻徹底與氧(yang)阻隔,后續亦無(wu)(wu)熱軋進程,銅桿表(biao)面無(wu)(wu)軋入(ru)表(biao)面的(de)氧(yang)化物,質量較(jiao)好,拉制(zhi)后銅粉少,上述問題較(jiao)少存(cun)在。

無氧銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)也(ye)分進口設備做的(de)(de)和國(guo)(guo)產(chan)(chan)設備做的(de)(de),但(dan)現在(zai)進口產(chan)(chan)品已無顯(xian)著優勢,銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)產(chan)(chan)品出來后差異不是很大(da),只需銅(tong)(tong)板選的(de)(de)好,出產(chan)(chan)操控比較安穩(wen),國(guo)(guo)產(chan)(chan)設備也(ye)能產(chan)(chan)出可拉伸0.05的(de)(de)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan).進口設備一般是芬蘭奧(ao)托昆(kun)普的(de)(de)設備,國(guo)(guo)產(chan)(chan)設備最(zui)好的(de)(de)應(ying)該是上(shang)海的(de)(de)水(shui)兵廠的(de)(de)了,出產(chan)(chan)時刻最(zui)長,軍工企業,質量牢(lao)靠(kao)。

低氧銅桿進口設備世界首(shou)要有兩(liang)種(zhong),一種(zhong)是美國(guo)南線設備,英文(wen)是SOUTHWIRE,國(guo)內廠家(jia)是南京華新,江西銅業,另一種(zhong)是德國(guo)CONTIROD設備,國(guo)內廠家(jia)是常州金源,天津大無縫(feng)。

無(wu)(wu)(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)及低(di)(di)(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)從含氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)量上(shang)簡略差異,無(wu)(wu)(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)是含氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)量在10-20個(ge)PPM以下,但(dan)(dan)現在有的(de)廠家只能(neng)(neng)做(zuo)到(dao)50個(ge)PPM以下.低(di)(di)(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)在 200-400個(ge)PPM,好(hao)的(de)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)子一般含氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)量操控(kong)在250個(ge)PPM左(zuo)右,無(wu)(wu)(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)一般采納(na)的(de)是上(shang)引法,低(di)(di)(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)是連鑄連軋(ya),兩種產品相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)對(dui)(dui)而言低(di)(di)(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)對(dui)(dui)漆包線性 能(neng)(neng)更習(xi)慣(guan)些,如柔軟性,回彈角,繞線功能(neng)(neng).但(dan)(dan)低(di)(di)(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)對(dui)(dui)拉(la)絲(si)條(tiao)(tiao)件相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)對(dui)(dui)要嚴苛些,相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)同(tong)拉(la)伸(shen)(shen)0.2的(de)細絲(si),假如伸(shen)(shen)線條(tiao)(tiao)件欠好(hao),一般的(de)無(wu)(wu)(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)可拉(la)而好(hao)的(de)低(di)(di)(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)就(jiu)斷 線,但(dan)(dan)假如放在好(hao)的(de)伸(shen)(shen)線條(tiao)(tiao)件,相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)同(tong)的(de)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)子,低(di)(di)(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)說不定就(jiu)能(neng)(neng)拉(la)到(dao)雙零(ling)五,而一般無(wu)(wu)(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)最多只能(neng)(neng)拉(la)伸(shen)(shen)到(dao)0.1罷了,當然(ran)做(zuo)的(de)最細的(de)如雙零(ling)二卻非得依(yi)托進口的(de) 無(wu)(wu)(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)了.現在有企業嘗試用剝(bo)皮(pi)的(de)辦法來處理低(di)(di)(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)來伸(shen)(shen)0.03線.但(dan)(dan)有關這方面的(de)內容(rong)我還不是很清楚。

低氧銅桿

音響線(xian)一(yi)般反而喜愛用無氧桿,這和無氧桿是單晶(jing)銅,低氧桿是多晶(jing)銅有關。

低氧銅桿和無(wu)氧銅桿因為制(zhi)作(zuo)辦法(fa)的不同(tong),致使存在不同(tong),具(ju)有(you)各自的特色。

一、關于(yu)氧的吸(xi)入(ru)和脫去(qu)以(yi)及它的存在狀(zhuang)況(kuang)

出(chu)產(chan)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)的(de)陰極銅(tong)(tong)的(de)含氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)量(liang)一般在(zai)(zai)10—50ppm,在(zai)(zai)常溫(wen)下氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)在(zai)(zai)銅(tong)(tong)中的(de)固溶度約2ppm。低(di)(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)的(de)含氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)量(liang)一般在(zai)(zai)200(175)—400(450)ppm,因此氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)的(de)進入是(shi)在(zai)(zai)銅(tong)(tong)的(de)液(ye)態下吸入的(de),而(er)(er)上(shang)引法無(wu)(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)則(ze)(ze)相(xiang)反,氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)在(zai)(zai)液(ye)態銅(tong)(tong)下堅持適當時刻后,被恢(hui)復(fu)而(er)(er)脫去,一般這(zhe)種(zhong)桿(gan)(gan)的(de)含氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)量(liang)都在(zai)(zai)10—50ppm以(yi)(yi)下,最低(di)(di)可達1-2ppm,從安(an)(an)排(pai)上(shang)看,低(di)(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)中的(de)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang),以(yi)(yi)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)化銅(tong)(tong)狀況(kuang),存在(zai)(zai)于晶(jing)粒鴻(hong)溝鄰近,這(zhe)對低(di)(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)而(er)(er)言能(neng)夠說是(shi)常見的(de)但對無(wu)(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)則(ze)(ze)很(hen)少(shao)見。氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)化銅(tong)(tong)以(yi)(yi)攙雜辦法在(zai)(zai)晶(jing)界(jie)呈現對資(zi)料(liao)的(de)耐(nai)性發生負面影響。而(er)(er)無(wu)(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)中的(de)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)很(hen)低(di)(di),所(suo)以(yi)(yi)這(zhe)種(zhong)銅(tong)(tong)的(de)安(an)(an)排(pai)是(shi)均(jun)勻的(de)單相(xiang)安(an)(an)排(pai)對耐(nai)性有利(li)。在(zai)(zai)無(wu)(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)中的(de)多孔性是(shi)不常見的(de),而(er)(er)在(zai)(zai)低(di)(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)中則(ze)(ze)是(shi)常見的(de)一種(zhong)缺點(dian)。

二(er)、熱軋(ya)安(an)排和(he)鑄(zhu)造安(an)排的差異

低(di)(di)氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)因(yin)(yin)為經過熱(re)軋,所以其(qi)安排(pai)屬熱(re)加(jia)工安排(pai),本來(lai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)鑄造安排(pai)現(xian)(xian)已破碎,在(zai)8mm的(de)(de)(de)(de)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)時已有再結(jie)晶(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)辦法呈現(xian)(xian),而無(wu)氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)屬鑄造安排(pai),晶(jing)粒(li)粗(cu)大,這是(shi)為什么,無(wu)氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)再結(jie)晶(jing)溫(wen)度較高,需求(qiu)較高退(tui)火溫(wen)度的(de)(de)(de)(de)固(gu)有原(yuan)因(yin)(yin)。這是(shi)因(yin)(yin)為,再結(jie)晶(jing)發生在(zai)晶(jing)粒(li)鴻(hong)(hong)溝鄰近,無(wu)氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)安排(pai)晶(jing)粒(li)粗(cu)大,晶(jing)粒(li)尺度乃至(zhi)能達幾個毫米(mi),因(yin)(yin)此晶(jing)粒(li)鴻(hong)(hong)溝少,即便(bian)經過拉(la)制(zhi)(zhi)變(bian)形,但晶(jing)粒(li)鴻(hong)(hong)溝相對(dui)(dui)低(di)(di)氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)仍(reng)是(shi)較少,所以需求(qiu)較高的(de)(de)(de)(de)退(tui)火功(gong)率(lv)。對(dui)(dui)無(wu)氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)成(cheng)功(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)退(tui)火要求(qiu)是(shi):由桿(gan)(gan)(gan)(gan)經拉(la)制(zhi)(zhi),但沒有鑄造安排(pai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)線(xian)時的(de)(de)(de)(de)第一(yi)次(ci)退(tui)火,其(qi)退(tui)火功(gong)率(lv)應(ying)比相同狀況(kuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)低(di)(di)氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)高10——15%。經持續(xu)拉(la)制(zhi)(zhi),在(zai)今(jin)后(hou)階段的(de)(de)(de)(de)退(tui)火功(gong)率(lv)應(ying)留有滿足的(de)(de)(de)(de)余(yu)量和(he)對(dui)(dui)低(di)(di)氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)和(he)無(wu)氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)實在(zai)差異履行不(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)(de)退(tui)火工藝,以確保在(zai)制(zhi)(zhi)品(pin)和(he)制(zhi)(zhi)品(pin)導線(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔軟性。

三、攙雜,氧含量(liang)動搖,表(biao)面氧化物(wu)和(he)或許(xu)存(cun)在的(de)(de)熱軋缺點的(de)(de)不同

無(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿的(de)(de)可(ke)拉(la)性在(zai)(zai)所有線(xian)徑里與(yu)低氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿比較都(dou)是優勝的(de)(de),除(chu)上述安(an)(an)(an)排原因外,無(wu)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿攙雜少,含(han)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)量(liang)安(an)(an)(an)穩,無(wu)熱軋或(huo)許發(fa)生(sheng)的(de)(de)缺點(dian),桿表(biao)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)化(hua)物(wu)(wu)(wu)厚度可(ke)達≤15A。在(zai)(zai)連鑄連軋出產進程中假(jia)如(ru)工(gong)藝不(bu)(bu)安(an)(an)(an)穩,對(dui)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)監控不(bu)(bu)嚴,含(han)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)量(liang)不(bu)(bu)安(an)(an)(an)穩將直接(jie)影(ying)響(xiang)桿的(de)(de)功能。假(jia)如(ru)桿的(de)(de)表(biao)面氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)化(hua)物(wu)(wu)(wu)能在(zai)(zai)后工(gong)序的(de)(de)接(jie)連清洗(xi)中得以(yi)補償外,但比較費事的(de)(de)是有適當(dang)多的(de)(de)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)化(hua)物(wu)(wu)(wu)存在(zai)(zai)于“皮下(xia)”,對(dui)拉(la)線(xian)斷(duan)線(xian)影(ying)響(xiang)更(geng)直接(jie),故而在(zai)(zai)拉(la)制微細線(xian),超微細線(xian)時,為了削減斷(duan)線(xian),有時要對(dui)銅(tong)(tong)桿采納不(bu)(bu)得已的(de)(de)辦法——剝皮,乃至二次剝皮的(de)(de)原因地點(dian),意(yi)圖要除(chu)掉皮下(xia)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)化(hua)物(wu)(wu)(wu)。

四、低氧銅(tong)桿和無(wu)氧銅(tong)桿的耐性有(you)不同

兩者都能夠(gou)拉到0.015mm,但在低溫超導線(xian)中的(de)低溫級無氧銅,其細(xi)絲間的(de)距離只要0.001mm.

五、從(cong)制桿的原資料到制線的經濟性有不同。

制(zhi)作無氧銅(tong)桿要求質量(liang)較高的(de)(de)原資料。一般,拉(la)制(zhi)直(zhi)(zhi)徑>1mm的(de)(de)銅(tong)線時,低氧銅(tong)桿的(de)(de)長處比較顯(xian)(xian)著(zhu),而(er)無氧銅(tong)桿顯(xian)(xian)得更(geng)為優勝的(de)(de)是拉(la)制(zhi)直(zhi)(zhi)徑<0.5mm的(de)(de)銅(tong)線。

六、低氧銅(tong)桿的制線工藝與無氧銅(tong)桿的有所不同。

低氧(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)線(xian)工藝不(bu)能(neng)(neng)照(zhao)搬到無氧(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)(gan)的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)線(xian)工藝上來,至少兩者的(de)退火(huo)工藝是不(bu)同的(de)。因為線(xian)的(de)柔軟性深受資料成份(fen)和制(zhi)(zhi)桿(gan)(gan),制(zhi)(zhi)線(xian)和退火(huo)工藝的(de)影(ying)響(xiang),不(bu)能(neng)(neng)簡略地(di)說低氧(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)或無氧(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)(tong)誰軟誰硬。

附:低氧(yang)(yang)銅桿(gan)和無氧(yang)(yang)銅桿(gan)簡介

1.低氧銅桿

低(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)桿(gan)是什(shen)么銅(tong)桿(gan)?低(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)桿(gan)出產(chan)工藝(yi)是什(shen)么?低(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)桿(gan)簡介(jie)有(you)哪些?首要看(kan)看(kan)低(di)氧(yang)(yang)(yang)銅(tong)桿(gan)界說(shuo):以(yi)銅(tong)為質(zhi)料經過連(lian)鑄連(lian)軋(ya)辦法出產(chan)出來含氧(yang)(yang)(yang)量200(175)~400(450)ppm之間(jian)銅(tong)桿(gan)材。

低(di)氧銅桿簡介-低(di)氧銅桿工藝流程(cheng):

低氧銅(tong)(tong)(tong)桿(gan)選用連(lian)(lian)鑄(zhu)(zhu)連(lian)(lian)軋工(gong)藝進行出(chu)產,其工(gong)藝流程為(wei):電(dian)解銅(tong)(tong)(tong)→豎爐→保溫(wen)爐→澆鑄(zhu)(zhu)機(ji)→連(lian)(lian)軋機(ji)→清洗→收桿(gan)機(ji)→制品(ф8mm)電(dian)解銅(tong)(tong)(tong)接連(lian)(lian)加(jia)料(liao),經豎爐接連(lian)(lian)熔化(hua)后放出(chu)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)水,經澆鑄(zhu)(zhu)機(ji)鑄(zhu)(zhu)成(cheng)大(da)截面的(de)梯形(xing)錠,進入軋機(ji)進行熱軋,軋成(cheng)ф8銅(tong)(tong)(tong)桿(gan)坯料(liao)。

▍工藝缺點

(1)豎(shu)爐:A.因(yin)為(wei)豎(shu)爐體(ti)(ti)積小,電(dian)解銅邊參加(jia)邊熔(rong)化(hua)(hua),熔(rong)化(hua)(hua)銅水(shui)(shui)沒有條件進(jin)(jin)(jin)行充沛恢(hui)復。.B.整(zheng)個熔(rong)化(hua)(hua)進(jin)(jin)(jin)程及出銅水(shui)(shui)進(jin)(jin)(jin)程,不能隔氧,所以含(han)氧量十分高。.C.熔(rong)銅燃料一般都為(wei)氣體(ti)(ti),氣體(ti)(ti)焚燒(shao)進(jin)(jin)(jin)程中(zhong),會直接影響銅液化(hua)(hua)學成分理(li)處,影響較大有硫和氫等。

(2)澆鑄機:澆鑄機結晶輪(lun)將(jiang)銅(tong)液成為(wei)固體進(jin)(jin)程(cheng)中,無法(fa)進(jin)(jin)行隔氧,所以澆鑄進(jin)(jin)程(cheng)中進(jin)(jin)行第(di)2次(ci)許(xu)多吸氧。

(3)溫(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)操(cao)(cao)(cao)控:A.銅液(ye)溫(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du),因(yin)為軋制量大(da)(da),又遭(zao)到多種要(yao)素(su)約束,該溫(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)不太簡略操(cao)(cao)(cao)控。B.進軋機鑄錠溫(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du),該溫(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)要(yao)求操(cao)(cao)(cao)控在850℃,上下誤(wu)差越(yue)大(da)(da),對(dui)銅桿(gan)質量影響(xiang)越(yue)大(da)(da),而此溫(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)很(hen)難(nan)操(cao)(cao)(cao)控。C.出軋機銅桿(gan)溫(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du),該溫(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)要(yao)求操(cao)(cao)(cao)控在600℃,也(ye)是上下誤(wu)差越(yue)大(da)(da),對(dui)銅桿(gan)質量影響(xiang)越(yue)大(da)(da),因(yin)為遭(zao)到前道工序約束,此溫(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)也(ye)很(hen)難(nan)操(cao)(cao)(cao)控。D.整個進程(cheng)中有許多環節,而某個環節稍呈現些問題,都(dou)會影響(xiang)溫(wen)(wen)(wen)(wen)度(du)(du)(du)(du)操(cao)(cao)(cao)控。

(4)其它:A.因為存在(zai)以上一些缺(que)點(dian),會(hui)(hui)構成銅桿質量(liang)不安穩,所以規(gui)(gui)(gui)范(fan)規(gui)(gui)(gui)則(ze):連(lian)(lian)鑄連(lian)(lian)軋低氧(yang)銅桿出(chu)廠(chang)前,有必(bi)要(yao)(yao)要(yao)(yao)做(zuo)改(gai)變實驗。但有出(chu)產廠(chang)底子不做(zuo),或(huo)不按規(gui)(gui)(gui)則(ze)批量(liang)做(zuo)(每批不該超越(yue)(yue)60噸(dun)(dun)),或(huo)改(gai)變不合(he)格批量(liang)照樣出(chu)廠(chang)。B.含氧(yang)高,會(hui)(hui)影(ying)響(xiang)拉線工序,銅線越(yue)(yue)拉越(yue)(yue)硬,中心要(yao)(yao)添(tian)加退火。含氧(yang)量(liang)高,還會(hui)(hui)影(ying)響(xiang)導電功能。C.為處理工藝缺(que)點(dian),需(xu)盡或(huo)許進(jin)步機(ji)組(zu)(zu)功能,所以機(ji)組(zu)(zu)價格昴貴。如美國南線公(gong)司年產2.4萬噸(dun)(dun)~4萬噸(dun)(dun)機(ji)組(zu)(zu),價格為690萬美元(yuan),德國克(ke)虜勃公(gong)司更貴。而用(yong)戶自己配套設備也要(yao)(yao)幾十萬仍至(zhi)上百萬美元(yuan)。

工藝長(chang)處:(1)產值高,一般(ban)(ban)小型機組每小時產值可達10~14噸。(2)銅桿卸線(xian)選用梅花式,便于拉線(xian)機放線(xian)。(3)收(shou)線(xian)分(fen)量大,一般(ban)(ban)每盤可達4噸。

▍低氧銅桿(gan)簡介-銅桿(gan)出產工(gong)藝辦(ban)法:

1.浸(jin)涂成型(xing)法(fa):能出產大長(chang)度亮光無氧(yang)銅桿、導電率為101~102%IACS,含氧(yang)量20ppm以(yi)下(xia),銅桿圈重3.5~10噸。

浸涂成(cheng)(cheng)型(xing)使(shi)用(yong)冷銅(tong)桿(gan)吸熱(re)才能(neng),用(yong)一(yi)根較(jiao)(jiao)細冷純銅(tong)芯桿(gan)(或稱(cheng)種子(zi)桿(gan)),筆直經過一(yi)只能(neng)堅持必定液位凹(ao)凸銅(tong)水池(chi),使(shi)銅(tong)水與該移動種子(zi)桿(gan)表面銅(tong)熔合(he)在一(yi)起,并逐漸凝(ning)結結組(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)較(jiao)(jiao)粗(cu)鑄造(zao)狀況銅(tong)桿(gan),然后經冷卻、熱(re)軋(ya)、冷卻、繞制成(cheng)(cheng)圈,整個進(jin)程關閉、有惰性氣體維護(hu)下進(jin)行。

2.上引冷軋法:能出產大長度亮光無氧(yang)銅桿、導電率為(wei)101~101.6%IACS,含氧(yang)量10ppm以下,銅桿圈重2噸。

它是使(shi)用一種管式(shi)銅套(即(ji)石墨(mo)結晶(jing)器(qi))其下(xia)端(duan)伸入并浸沒在熔化銅液面下(xia),上端(duan)與(yu)真(zhen)空(kong)泵(beng)連通,開始時將結晶(jing)器(qi)內空(kong)氣抽(chou)出,真(zhen)空(kong)效(xiao)果下(xia),使(shi)管內發生負壓,銅液緩緩招引向上,并在引升器(qi)鄰(lin)近很(hen)快凝(ning)結成(cheng)亮光鑄(zhu)錠。然后經冷軋(ya)或冷拉成(cheng)桿。上引法出產(chan)銅桿含氧量10ppm以(yi)下(xia),表面亮光。

3.連(lian)鑄連(lian)軋(ya)法:能(neng)出產大(da)長度亮光低氧(yang)銅(tong)桿(gan)、導(dao)電(dian)率為101~102%IACS,含氧(yang)量200~300ppm,銅(tong)桿(gan)圈重達5噸。

4.回線(xian)軋(ya)制(zhi)法:出產短長度有氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)皮黑銅桿(gan),導電(dian)率為99.5~100.5%IACS,含氧(yang)(yang)量(liang)200~500ppm,銅桿(gan)圈重只要86~136公斤。(因受(shou)船(chuan)形銅錠分量(liang)約(yue)束(shu))

▍低(di)氧銅桿簡介(jie)-低(di)氧銅桿商(shang)標(biao)及特性:

低氧銅桿(gan)商標(biao)有三種,T1、T2、T3,低氧銅桿(gan)都為(wei)熱軋,所(suo)認為(wei)軟桿(gan),代(dai)號(hao)為(wei)R。

(1)T1:用高純電解(jie)銅(tong)為質料(含銅(tong)量大于99.9975%)出產(chan)低氧銅(tong)桿。

(2)T2:用1#電(dian)解銅(tong)為質料(含銅(tong)量大于99.95%)出產低氧銅(tong)桿。

(3)T3:用2#電解(jie)銅(tong)(tong)為質(zhi)料(liao)(含(han)銅(tong)(tong)量大于99.90%)出(chu)產低氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)。因高純電解(jie)銅(tong)(tong)和2#電解(jie)銅(tong)(tong)市(shi)場上很(hen)少,一(yi)般(ban)都用1#電解(jie)銅(tong)(tong)為質(zhi)料(liao),所(suo)以一(yi)般(ban)低氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿(gan)商標為:T2R。

2.無氧銅桿

因為出產銅桿的工藝(yi)不同,所出產的銅桿中(zhong)的含(han)氧量及外(wai)觀(guan)就不同。上(shang)引出產的銅桿,工藝(yi)妥當氧含(han)量在20ppm以下(xia),叫(jiao)無氧銅桿;連(lian)鑄連(lian)軋出產的銅桿是(shi)在維護條件(jian)下(xia)的熱(re)軋,氧含(han)量在200-500ppm范圍內,但有時也(ye)高達700ppm以上(shang),一般狀況下(xia),此種辦(ban)法出產的銅表面(mian)亮(liang)光(guang)(guang),俗稱亮(liang)光(guang)(guang)桿。

無氧(yang)銅桿是不含(han)氧(yang)也不含(han)任何脫氧(yang)劑殘留物的純銅。但(dan)實際上仍(reng)是含(han)有(you)十分(fen)微量氧(yang)和一(yi)些雜(za)質。按(an)規范(fan)規則,氧(yang)的含(han)量不大于0.02%,雜(za)質總(zong)含(han)量不大于0.05%,銅的純度大于99.95%。

一般(ban)用電(dian)(dian)解銅(tong)出產(chan)(chan)(chan),電(dian)(dian)阻率低于低氧銅(tong)桿(gan),因此在(zai)出產(chan)(chan)(chan)對電(dian)(dian)阻要(yao)求比(bi)較(jiao)嚴(yan)苛的產(chan)(chan)(chan)品中,無(wu)(wu)氧銅(tong)桿(gan)比(bi)較(jiao)經濟;制作無(wu)(wu)氧銅(tong)桿(gan)要(yao)求質量較(jiao)高的原資料;無(wu)(wu)氧銅(tong)桿(gan)顯得更為優勝(sheng)的是拉(la)制直徑<0.5mm的銅(tong)線(xian)。6MM的無(wu)(wu)氧銅(tong)桿(gan)用于出產(chan)(chan)(chan)銅(tong)扁線(xian)。3mm的無(wu)(wu)氧銅(tong)桿(gan)用于拉(la)絲,出產(chan)(chan)(chan)電(dian)(dian)線(xian)銅(tong)芯,漆包線(xian)。首(shou)要(yao)應用于電(dian)(dian)線(xian)電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)和電(dian)(dian)機。

依(yi)據含氧(yang)量(liang)和雜質含量(liang),無(wu)氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿又(you)分為(wei)TU1和TU2銅(tong)(tong)桿。TU1無(wu)氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)桿純度到達(da)99.99%,氧(yang)含量(liang)不(bu)大(da)于(yu)0.001%;TU2無(wu)氧(yang)銅(tong)(tong)純度到達(da)99.95%,氧(yang)含量(liang)不(bu)大(da)于(yu)0.002%。

 

 

 

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